地质力学学报  2018, Vol. 24 Issue (5): 645-660
引用本文
刘刚, 董树文. 四川盆地陆相侏罗系白垩系界线问题探讨[J]. 地质力学学报, 2018, 24(5): 645-660.
LIU Gang, DONG Shuwen. DISCUSSION ON THE CONTINENTAL JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS BOUNDARY IN THE SICHUAN BASIN[J]. Journal of Geomechanics, 2018, 24(5): 645-660.
四川盆地陆相侏罗系白垩系界线问题探讨
刘刚1 , 董树文1,2     
1. 中国地质科学院, 北京 100037;
2. 南京大学地球科学与工程学院, 江苏 南京 210093
摘要:侏罗系/白垩系界线是国际地层年表中少有几个未定全球界线层型(GSSP)之一。传统上依据菊石类生物将Berriasian阶底界定义为白垩系的底界。国际上西北太平洋Shatsky Rise的Berriasian阶最底部玄武岩岩床的同位素年代学年龄为145 Ma,从而为侏罗系/白垩系界线提供了最接近的年龄估计值。在国际上,地层对比划分大都根据海相地层,中国广泛发育的陆相侏罗系/白垩系,难以与国际标准地层对比。中国四川盆地以陆相生物为标志的界线划分与国际年代地层对比困难,导致对四川盆地陆相侏罗系/白垩系界线问题的认识长期未有更新。根据陆相生物对比结果的同时,结合考虑同位素测年、磁性地层和旋回地层,有望获得良好的效果。基于同位素测年数据和陆相生物对比分析,在遂宁组中发现了最年轻的~120 Ma的碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄,而且该套地层与国际对比的核心证据介形类的研究也有新的发现,表明遂宁组有可能属于白垩系而非原认为的侏罗系。将沙溪庙组和遂宁组作为侏罗系/白垩系过渡地层系统研究,有可能在该套地层内部发现界线标志。
关键词四川盆地    侏罗系    白垩系    界线    锆石    
DOI10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2018.24.05.065     文章编号:1006-6616(2018)05-0645-16
DISCUSSION ON THE CONTINENTAL JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS BOUNDARY IN THE SICHUAN BASIN
LIU Gang1 , DONG Shuwen1,2     
1. Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China;
2. School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu, China
Abstract: The Jurassic/Cretaceous is one of the boundaries that do not yet have an accepted global boundary definition. The Berriasian stage is traditionally defined as the Cretaceous base according to ammonites. The geochronology age of basalt bedrock at the bottom of the Berriasian stage in Shatsky Rise, Northwest Pacific is 145Ma, which provides the closest estimate age of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. The international stratigraphical division and correlation are based on marine standard, Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in China are mostly of continental strata which are difficult to compare with international standard strata. Therefore, the dominant opinion on Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the Sichuan Basin has not been renewed for a long time. Based on a comprehensive analysis of paleontological, geochronologic and paleogeomagnetic studies, good results are expected. The youngest detrital zircon U-Pb age is ~120 Ma, which reflects a depositional age of younger than ~120 Ma.The detrital zircon U-Pb age of Suining Formation shows that this widespread formation should be assigned to the Cretaceous, not the Jurassic. If it is the case, the transition beds of the Jurassic/Cretaceous would be down to Shaximiao Formation and Suining Formation. Based on systematic study, the indicators or markers of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary would be obtained from Shaximiao Formation and Suining Formation.
Key words: the Sichuan Basin    Jurassic    Cretaceous    boundary    zircon    

侏罗系/白垩系界线的确定是国际地学界十分关注,但百年来都未能很好解决的世界性难题。由于地球上生物区系的不同,后期频繁的构造运动又对生物地理区分隔改造,古生物难以对比,而且同期陆相地层较为发育,几乎没有可靠的数据控制界线精确年龄等因素致使当今侏罗系/白垩系界线的层型无法确定[1],使其成为国际地质年表中少有几个未定全球界线层型(GSSP)之一[2]。中国侏罗系/白垩系分界问题长期以来一直是国内地质界激烈争论的复杂问题之一。

1 国际与中国侏罗系/白垩系界线研究

2007年,国际地层委员会尊重历史沿革,据菊石化石将Berriasian阶的底界定义为白垩系的底界(见图 1)。另外还有一些其他被考虑作为界线层型的界定标志,如:层序地层学标志、微体化石标志和磁性地层学标志等[3]。由于侏罗系/白垩系界线附近几乎没有可靠的数据控制界线精确年龄,故主要依据地磁极性年表对比研究特提斯菊石化石带[4]。Ogg et al.测定美国Morrison组接近顶部火山灰层的40Ar/39Ar同位素年龄为148~151 Ma,将侏罗系/白垩系界线划在145 Ma,位于古地磁极性带M19n.2n中部,同时也是Berriasella jacobi带底部[4]。Mahoney et al.在位于太平洋海底高原Shatsky Rise的Berriasian阶底部测得了火成岩40Ar/39Ar同位素年代学年龄145 Ma[5],近似等于侏罗系/白垩系界线的年龄。Palfy et al.在下白垩统Berriasian阶底界测得了142 Ma年龄值[6]

图 1 国际海相侏罗系、白垩系界线划分方案[7~11] Figure 1 International placement of selected markers under consideration for Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary correlations[7~11]

中国侏罗系/白垩系分界问题一直是国内地质界争议的问题之一[12~20]。中国海相侏罗系/白垩系地层发育较少,主要分布于中国西部、北部等地区[21~26]。而中国侏罗系/白垩系陆相地层广泛分布,在河北北部和辽宁西部地区发育保存较好,发表了大量的科研成果[27~31]。同时,侏罗纪白垩纪之交是中国东部岩浆、成矿等作用最为强烈的时期,致使东亚地区构造环境变化巨大[32~33]。近年来,同位素年代学研究有了长足进展,中国东部原定的晚侏罗世火山岩几乎全部改为早白垩世[34~38]。部分学者根据对河北北部和辽宁西部地区原归于上侏罗统或侏罗系/白垩系界线地层同位素年龄测定的新结果提出,原归上侏罗统地层的主体为下白垩统,侏罗系/白垩系界线较以往的认识大大下移[39~55]。由此对比到全国,结果是国内以往归于上侏罗统的地层基本应归入下白垩统,侏罗系/白垩系之间存在一个几乎是全中国范围的,长达十多个百万年的巨大缺失[20~21],可能凸现了“燕山运动”的构造响应[32~33]。2013年第四届全国地层会议上,与国际接轨,国内众多相关专家同意将中国地层表白垩系/侏罗系的界线年龄调整为145 Ma[56~57]

国内部分学者提出位于河北滦平盆地的侏罗系/白垩系剖面可以作为陆相侏罗系/白垩系界线标准剖面[58~62],庞其清等将采集化石与欧洲地层比较后,认为大北沟组与大店子组交界为侏罗系/白垩系界线,界线年龄130 Ma[61]。王五力等根据生物地层学对比,将义县阶(组)的时代归属上侏罗统,还建议将124 Ma作为中国陆相侏罗系/白垩系界线的年龄[62]。Chen et al.研究采集的古生物化石后,认为义县组尖山沟层应划分在晚侏罗世晚期[63]。王启飞等则提出将界线年龄放在125 Ma[19]。另外一些学者,顾知微、沙金庚等比较辽西地区热河群与黑龙江地区龙爪沟群,认为热河群不含有早白垩世早期地层[64~69]。Kong et al.对比研究松辽盆地白垩纪地层古生物化石后,认为热河生物群应发育在早白垩世[54]。最近在河北北部和辽宁西部地区发现数量和门类繁多的具有早白垩世特征的古脊椎动物化石,支持热河生物群发育在早白垩世[70~75],对热河群相关地层的火山岩同位素年代学研究结果,也支持这个观点[43~50]。Sha推测中国东北地区和内蒙南部地区侏罗系/白垩系界线附近沉积并不连续[52]。近年来土城子组内的同位素测年年龄(139 Ma[44]或156~139 Ma[51])表明中国东北地区侏罗系/白垩系界线或许位于土城子组之内。季强对比西藏海相晚中生代地层和生物群并结合同位素测年研究[76],认为中国北方陆相侏罗系/白垩系界线的年龄值不会比142 Ma年轻,热河生物群的时代为早白垩世(136~120 Ma)。可见,现今同位素年代学的发展限定了许多争议地层的时代归属。

显然,在地层界线研究中,多门类化石地层对比、海陆交互相地层化石的准确鉴定和对比[77~78]、非海相化石的横向对比、精确的同位素测年、多种同位素测年方法对比验证、古地磁学研究、这些工作都将扮演重要的角色[26]

2 四川盆地陆相侏罗系/白垩系界线的相关研究

四川盆地位于中国西南部,是国内著名的大型内陆盆地之一。四川盆地东临雪峰山构造带、西接龙门山构造带,北临大巴山构造带。自震旦纪以来,四川盆地就是稳定的克拉通盆地,沉积了巨厚的海相地层[79],一直到晚三叠世演化为一个陆相盆地,整个中生代沉积了巨厚的红色、紫红色陆相地层。因为缺少可以直接定年的物质,主要通过古生物化石来推测时代,主流意见认为侏罗系/白垩系界线划在城墙岩群及相当岩层的底面[80~84](见图 2), 上侏罗统划分为遂宁组和蓬莱镇组,下白垩统由城墙岩群等组成。部分学者认为侏罗系/白垩系界线位于城墙岩群顶面或内部[85~87]。此外,还有学者认为侏罗系与白垩系的界线位于蓬莱镇组之中[88]。Shi et al.推测遂宁组可能属于白垩系[21],但没有给出有力的地质学证据。

图 2 川东北地区与冀北辽西地区侏罗系—白垩系地层对比示意图 Figure 2 Summary chart of the stratigraphic divisions and correlations of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary strata in the northeast Sichuan Basin and the north Hebei-west Liaoning area

相关的主要研究如下:

介形类Ostracods:卫民鉴定了产于蓬莱镇组和遂宁组的古生物化石,鉴定出Darwinula-Cetacella-Djungarica-Eolimnocythere介形类组合[89]。李玉文则称产于蓬莱镇组和遂宁组的介形类为Damonella、shuangbaiensis-Darwinulaobgonga共同延续带[8]。卫民[89]和李玉文[13]对比德国上侏罗统Kimmerdgian阶发育的Cetacella,认为遂宁组归属上侏罗统。可见,Cetacella是遂宁组可以对比欧洲上侏罗统Kimmerdgian阶这个主流观点的核心证据,也是现在四川盆地侏罗系/白垩系界线划分主流意见的基础证据之一。

然而,卫民[89]和李玉文[13]并没有在遂宁组中发现西欧上侏罗统Kimmerdgian阶中常与Cetacella伴生的其他主要介形类化石。李玉文在蓬莱镇组上部发现的Lycopterocypris fabaeformis Galeeva等,在蒙古和华北地区下白垩统地层也有发现[13]。叶春辉[90]依据介形类认为城墙岩群时代归属早白垩世。最新的资料显示,在南美的巴西[91],非洲西部[91]和北部[92],南亚印度[93],西欧法国[94]的下白垩统地层中均发现了Cetacella,这说明据Cetacella将遂宁组与欧洲上侏罗统Kimmerdgian阶对比值得商榷,四川盆地侏罗系/白垩系界线主流划分意见也值得再研究。

双壳类Bivalves:郭福祥修正首次出现在遂宁组中的Martinsonella?[95]Cyotrigonioides[96],并且将CyotrigonioidesDanlengiconcha归为Trigonioidacea[97]。夏宗实[98]在蓬莱镇组中鉴定出了Nakamuranaia cf. chingshanensis。马其鸿研究蓬莱镇组的三角蚌类(Trigonioidacea)时[99],将自己早年发现的Martinsonella修改为Danlengiconcha,与此同时,郭福祥[97]也认为蔡绍英等[100]曾发表的Danlengiconcha属于类三角蚌超科,认为其归属于上侏罗统—下白垩统。刘协章[88]依据Danlengiconcha elogata等类三角蚌类化石的研究,将蓬莱镇组置于上侏罗统—下白垩统。

而在国际上Trigonioidacea首次出现在白垩纪[39],并广泛分布于亚洲陆相早白垩世地层中[101~112],甚至出现在北美[113~114]、澳大利亚[115]、欧洲[116]白垩纪地层中。

叶肢介Conchostracans:四川蓬莱镇组的叶肢介被称为Eosestheriopsis dianzhongensis,包括E.dianzhongensisMigransia chuanzhingensis[117~125]。陈丕基[126]发现发育在云南的叶肢介群具有滨生长线瘤构造,认为属于东方叶肢介属(Eosestheria),他比较华北地区东方叶肢介群,认为滇中东方叶肢介时代应发育在晚侏罗世。沈炎彬等发现蓬莱镇组中共同产出了EosestheriopsisMigransia,认为其发育在晚侏罗世晚期[127]。牛绍武等在河北北部大店子组中鉴定出了Clithrograpta,发现其具滨生长线瘤特征[128]。陈丕基根据辽宁西部义县组产出的具有滨生长线瘤特征的Eosestheriopsis gujialingensis,对辽宁地区义县组与川滇地区蓬莱镇组比较研究[129]。同期,王五力也发表文章将Clithrograpta作为Eosestheria的一个亚属,建立了一个新属Jiliaoestheria[130]。显而易见,在河北北部和辽宁西部地区发育具有滨生长线瘤的似东方叶肢介,因此川滇地区和冀北辽西地区可以根据东方叶肢介群进行古生物地层对比。

在川滇地区遂宁组是Eosestheriopsis出现的最低层位,在蓬莱镇组中大量出现[25];在河北北部和辽宁西部地区大北沟组是Abrestheria出现的最低层位,在大店子组中大量出现。为了解释这种中国南北地区相同属种叶肢介发育的时代差异,部分学者提出,生活在中国南方(特提斯区)的东方叶肢介(Eosestheria)从晚侏罗世开始,历经几百万年甚至上千万年漫长的迁徙,在早白垩世到达北方(环太平洋)的华北地区。众所周知,在三叠纪中朝板块和扬子板块就已经开始拼合,到晚侏罗世—早白垩世时期,已经拼合为一体,生物可以自由迁徙扩散,在中国南方地区和北方地区的东方叶肢介(Eosestheria)发育时代在百万年级别的时间尺度上应该相差不会太远。当然,还有少部分学者坚持认为中国南北中生代叶肢介完全无法对比。

孢粉Sporo-pollen:王全伟等在研究四川盆地晚三叠世至白垩纪的孢粉时[131],发现孢粉化石于遂宁组中罕见,蓬莱镇组中较为发育,组合中Classopollis粉占有重要地位。Classopollis出现于上三叠统;至下侏罗统含量逐渐增多;中侏罗统大量出现,但后期呈现减少的趋势;上侏罗统(遂宁组)中罕见,上侏罗统(蓬莱镇组)Classopollis含量较多;下白垩统(城墙岩群)Classopollis大量出现,至晚白垩世罕见。大巴山东部的秭归盆地是侏罗纪四川盆地的东延部分[132],陈辉明等在秭归盆地发现了Classopollis[133],中侏罗统陈家湾组和沙溪庙组时期,植物种类单调,Classopollis粉大量出现,上侏罗统遂宁组中未发现,蓬莱镇组时期,植物种类极为单调,Classopollis粉达90%。而在华北和东北地区,土城子组中孢粉Classopollis含量高达82.6%,蕨类植物极其贫乏[134]。陶明华等发现Classopollis高含量组合见于九佛堂组中部[134],最高达87.0%。值得注意的是,大巴山东部秭归盆地中侏罗统沙溪庙组上部,出现了Converreecosisporites venitusConcavissimisporitesImpardecisporaCouperisporites等一些侏罗纪晚期—早白垩世时期常见的孢粉[133]。在国际上Converrucosisporites venitus 首见于下白垩统[135],在河北北部下白垩统大北沟组[136]以及我国北方一些下白垩统地层中也有发现[137~139]

轮藻Charophytes:其中Euaclistochara 从自流井组到蓬莱镇组都有发育。轮藻中有5种Porochara和2种Aclistochara首次出现于遂宁组和蓬莱镇组[12]。最近,李杨等在遂宁组中鉴定出了Aclistochara urniformis-Aclistochara lufengensis轮藻组合带[140],在蓬莱镇组中鉴定出了Porochara maedleri-Aclistochara yunnanensis轮藻组合带[141]。而Aclistochara广泛分布于北美、中国和蒙古的白垩系地层[142~147]Porochara也是中国东部和南部地区白垩系地层中的常见化石[148]

古气候学研究表明,侏罗纪/白垩纪之交的古气候发生了重大变化,在古北极海区晚伏尔加期,根据海生箭石类介壳氧同位素测古温度,显示为一次明显的降温事件[149]。郝诒纯等据古水温变化认为侏罗纪/白垩纪之交有一次降温事件[150]。Frakes等根据晚中生代西伯利亚、加拿大和早白垩世澳大利亚、阿拉斯加、新西兰等地的冰筏沉积, 指出在侏罗纪白垩纪之交可能有冰川作用出现[151]。王东坡等据冰筏研究指出中侏罗世到早白垩世为寒冷型气候[152]。柳永清等曾提出晚侏罗世—早白垩世华北地区气候具有由炎热干旱转为寒冷干旱的变化趋势[153]。李洪涛等对河北北部和辽宁西部地区早白垩世沉积盆地富有机质沉积岩进行了有机地球化学分析研究,认为滦平盆地大北沟组沉积时有机质比较贫乏,这显示其所代表的沉积相带不利于有机质的聚集;到了大店子组时期沉积相带发生了变化,有机质类型随之发生了变化、丰度也有所增高,但总体上显示环境条件不利于生物的发育和繁衍。所以,侏罗纪白垩纪之交的气侯降温和气候带变化很可能具有全球性规模[154]。在川滇地区,遂宁组主要为砖红色粉砂岩,局部底部含砾,其中包含有薄的透镜状砂岩,向上过渡为板状泥岩,这与中国北方早白垩世红色地层十分相似。王红梅等利用气相色谱—质谱仪从四川剑门关侏罗系/白垩系红层中检测出包括正构烷烃、类异戊二烯烃、长链三环萜、藿烷及甾烷等系列生物标志化合物,分析认为在遂宁组时期突然出现相对较多的草本植物,表明气候突然变为寒冷干燥,而后慢慢升温,沙溪庙组和遂宁组之间大概是从早侏罗世到早白垩世地层中古植被与古气候相对变化最大的分界线[155]

3 同位素年代学的新发现与探讨

在四川盆地,陆相侏罗系与白垩系地层中几乎没有发育火山岩,缺少可以直接定年的物质,主要通过古生物化石来推测时代,也产生了一些争议。然而,利用沉积岩碎屑锆石同位素年代学定年技术可以限定沉积岩时代上限,间接逼近真实的地层界线。这项工作已经取得了新进展,也能提供一些证据,说明一些问题。通过在四川盆地东北部通江地区进行研究工作,对上侏罗统遂宁组砂岩进行碎屑锆石U-Pb SHRIMP测年和碎屑锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb测年(见图 3),发现遂宁组最年轻的206Pb/238U年龄为~120 Ma(详细数据请见参考文献[156]),这个年龄代表了碎屑沉积时代上限,对比国际地质科学联合会国际地层委员会(IUGS-ICS)公布的侏罗系/白垩系界线年龄值145 Ma,认为遂宁组的沉积时代可能在早白垩世或更晚[156]。李瑞保等和Luo et al.分别利用LA-ICP-MS碎屑锆石U-Pb年代学研究重庆地区盆山物质耦合[157]和四川西北部沉积构造[158]时显示中侏罗统上沙溪庙组碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄最小值为163 Ma和160 Ma。对照国际年代地层表[2],发现这个年龄小于或接近上侏罗统Oxfordian期底部年龄(163.5 Ma),这意味着遂宁组之下的中侏罗统上沙溪庙组可能含有晚侏罗世或更晚的地层成分。

(T-J3sn为采样位置) 图 3 四川盆地东北部通江地区遂宁组剖面 Figure 3 The section of Suining Formation in Tongjiang area, northeast Sichuan Basin. (T-J3sn represents the location of the sample)
4 讨论

在中国陆相侏罗系/白垩系界线研究中,多门类化石地层对比、精确的同位素测年、古地磁学研究都将扮演重要角色[31]。研究发现: ①介形类Cetacella是将遂宁组与欧洲上侏罗统Kimmerdgian阶对比的核心证据[13, 85, 89],而在南美巴西[91]、非洲西部和北部[91~92]、南亚印度[93]、西欧法国[94]的白垩纪地层中均发现了Cetacella,可见这个对比值得商榷。在蓬莱镇中也发现了产于华北地区下白垩统的介形类组合[13]。②具滨生长线瘤及网线装饰的叶肢介开始出现在四川盆地遂宁组层位,在蓬莱镇组中数量大量增加;而在河北北部和辽宁西部地区具滨生长线瘤及网线装饰的叶肢介开始出现在下白垩统大北沟组层位,在大店子组中数量大量增加。在四川盆地蓬莱镇组中发现具滨生长线瘤及线脊装饰的叶肢介;在河北北部和辽宁西部地区大店子组中也发现了具滨生长线瘤及线脊装饰的叶肢介。可见中国北方和南方的中生代东方叶肢介基本可以对比[25, 126~130];在蓬莱镇组中产有EosestheriopsisMigransia,可与之对比的英国Purbeck群主流意见也全部划归下白垩统[58]。③轮藻中有5种Porochara和2种Aclistochara首次出现于遂宁组和蓬莱镇组[12],而Aclistochara广泛分布于北美、中国、蒙古的白垩系地层[142~147]Porochara也是中国东部和南部地区白垩系地层中的常见化石[148]。④众多学者对发现于遂宁组和蓬莱镇组中的双壳类进行了细致的重新研究和分类[95~100],其中Trigonioidacea首次出现在白垩纪[39],并广泛分布于亚洲陆相早白垩世地层中[101~112],甚至出现在北美[113~114]、澳大利亚[115]、欧洲[116]白垩纪地层中。⑤在川滇地区,孢粉化石在遂宁组中罕见,至蓬莱镇组时期Classopollis粉达到了最高含量(90%)[131];而在冀北辽西地区大北沟组沉积时有机质比较贫乏,Classopollis最高含量组合见于九佛堂组中部(87%)[134];国际上首见于下白垩统的Converrucosisporites venitus[135](大北沟组中也有发现)见于秭归盆地沙溪庙组上部[133]。⑥在上侏罗统遂宁组中发现最年轻的206Pb/238U年龄为~120Ma的砂岩碎屑锆石[156]。同时中侏罗统上沙溪庙组中发现最年轻的206Pb/238U年龄小于或接近上侏罗统Oxfordian期底部年龄的砂岩碎屑锆石[157~158]。⑦国内众多相关专家认同《国际地层表》[2]界定的侏罗纪/白垩纪年龄为145 Ma,大北沟组上移至下白垩统,侏罗系/白垩系界线大致位于土城子组内部[56]。⑧侏罗纪/白垩纪之交的古气侯降温和气候带变化很可能具有全球性规模,而在遂宁组时期存在一个气候突然变为寒冷干燥的事件[149~154],沙溪庙组和遂宁组之间大概是从早侏罗世到早白垩世地层中古植被与古气候相对变化最大的分界线[155]

长期以来,四川盆地侏罗系/白垩系界线划在城墙岩群及相当岩层的底面[80~84]。2013年第四届全国地层会议上,中国河北北部和辽宁西部地区传统的上侏罗统已被修正为下白垩统,传统的侏罗系/白垩系界线下移至土城子组内部[56]。那么,中生代陆相地层广泛发育的四川盆地的侏罗系/白垩系界线该如何调整呢?已有文献证明将遂宁组与欧洲上侏罗统Kimmerdgian阶对比的核心证据介形类Cetacella在早白垩系地层中也有发现,且项目组在传统的上侏罗统遂宁组中测得了~120Ma的碎屑锆石年龄,这意味着遂宁组含有下白垩统地层成分,Shi et al. [21]和Sha[52]的推测可能是合理的(见图 4)。国际地层表[2]中的侏罗系/白垩系界线年龄为145 Ma,如果按照145 Ma的年龄在四川盆地寻找侏罗系/白垩系界线,四川盆地侏罗系/白垩系界线也要相应的下移;依据同位素测年结果推测,该界线显然低于遂宁组内碎屑锆石采样点的位置,有可能下移至遂宁组或沙溪庙组内部。由此,遂宁组和沙溪庙组成为界线研究的主要目标,这为四川盆地晚中生代地层时代的确定和侏罗系/白垩系界线的确立提供了新的研究方向。

图 4 中国陆相侏罗纪地层划分对比图[21] Figure 4 Subdivision and correlation of the terrestrial Jurassic strata in China [21]
5 结论

中国四川盆地以陆相生物为标志的界线划分与国际年代地层对比困难,致使四川盆地侏罗系/白垩系界线问题的认识长期未有更新。对比地层古生物的同时,结合考虑同位素测年,可以获得较好结果。在传统的上侏罗统遂宁组中测得~120 Ma的碎屑锆石年龄,代表着地层沉积时代的上限,这个数值小于中国年代地层表侏罗系/白垩系界线年龄(145 Ma),这意味着遂宁组有可能属于白垩系而非原认为的侏罗系,这为四川盆地晚中生代地层时代的确定和侏罗系/白垩系界线的确立提供了新的证据。四川盆地侏罗系/白垩系界线可能位于遂宁组或沙溪庙组内部某处,将沙溪庙组和遂宁组作为侏罗系/白垩系过渡地层系统研究,有可能在该套地层内部发现界线标志。这个发现对川滇地区和鄂西渝东地区广泛分布的中生代陆相地层划分研究具有重要意义。在今后研究中通过更多的实验数据,以期采用跨学科的研究方法建立该地区非海相侏罗系/白垩系地层年代表;同时,也希望地层研究方法能不断改进。

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