地质力学学报  2019, Vol. 25 Issue (5): 769-797
引用本文
董云鹏, 张国伟, 孙圣思, 张菲菲, 何登峰, 孙娇鹏, 柳小明, 杨钊, 程斌, 惠博, 岳远刚, 周波, 程超, 杨子强, 史小辉, 龙晓平. 中国大陆“十字构造”形成演化及其大陆动力学意义[J]. 地质力学学报, 2019, 25(5): 769-797.
DONG Yunpeng, ZHANG Guowei, SUN Shengsi, ZHANG Feifei, HE Dengfeng, SUN Jiaopeng, LIU Xiaoming, YANG Zhao, CHENG Bin, HUI Bo, YUE Yuangang, ZHOU Bo, CHENG Chao, YANG Ziqiang, SHI Xiaohui, LONG Xiaoping. THE "CROSS-TECTONICS" IN CHINA CONTINENT: FORMATION, EVOLUTION, AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR CONTINENTAL DYNAMICS[J]. Journal of Geomechanics, 2019, 25(5): 769-797.
中国大陆“十字构造”形成演化及其大陆动力学意义
董云鹏 , 张国伟 , 孙圣思 , 张菲菲 , 何登峰 , 孙娇鹏 , 柳小明 , 杨钊 , 程斌 , 惠博 , 岳远刚 , 周波 , 程超 , 杨子强 , 史小辉 , 龙晓平     
大陆动力学国家重点实验室/西北大学地质学系, 陕西 西安 710069
摘要:东亚大陆是由许多分别亲劳亚或亲冈瓦纳的中小陆块经过复杂拼合而成的最为复杂的大陆,而中国大陆地处东亚的核心位置,是研究东亚大陆形成演化的关键。控制中国大陆形成演化的最主要的构造格架是"十字构造",即东西向的中央造山系和南北向的贺兰-川滇南北构造带。前者自东而西包括秦岭造山带、祁连造山带和昆仑造山带,是南方和北方陆块群历经古生代-印支期拼合形成中国大陆主体的构造结合带,并遭受中新生代陆内造山改造,构成了中国大陆地质地理、生态环境、人文经济等南北分野;后者不同区段继承了前寒武纪板块构造记录,逐步转化为古亚洲洋或古特提斯构造域大陆边缘,尤其是新特提斯构造运动,形成青藏高原隆升-扩展变形的东部边界,控制了晚中生代-新生代中国大陆东西反转演化。以"十字构造"为坐标系,中国大陆四个象限的地质、地球物理结构、自然资源、生态环境、人文经济等存在明显差异。
关键词中国大陆“十字构造”    中央造山系    南北构造带    秦岭造山带    祁连造山带    昆仑造山带    
DOI10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.05.065     文章编号:1006-6616(2019)05-0769-29
THE "CROSS-TECTONICS" IN CHINA CONTINENT: FORMATION, EVOLUTION, AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR CONTINENTAL DYNAMICS
DONG Yunpeng , ZHANG Guowei , SUN Shengsi , ZHANG Feifei , HE Dengfeng , SUN Jiaopeng , LIU Xiaoming , YANG Zhao , CHENG Bin , HUI Bo , YUE Yuangang , ZHOU Bo , CHENG Chao , YANG Ziqiang , SHI Xiaohui , LONG Xiaoping     
State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, Shannxi China
Abstract: The East Asian continent is the most complex continent which was formed by amalgamation of many small-to-medium-sized Laurasia or Gondwana associated blocks. The China continent is located in the core position of East Asia, and is the key to study the formation and evolution of the East Asian continent. The most important tectonic framework controlling the formation and evolution of main China continent is the "cross-tectonics", that is, the EW trending Central Orogenic System and the NS trending Helan-Chuandian North-South tectonic belt. The former includes, from east to west, the Qinling, the Qilian and the Kunlun orogenic belts. They were formed by the subduction-collision between the southern and northern continental blocks during the Paleozoic-Indosinian period constituting the mainland of the China continent. Then, Central Orogenic System has been overprinted by the Mesozoic to Cenozoic intracontinental orogenic events, forming the north and south division of geological geography, ecological environment, and human economy. The latter inherited the Precambrian plate tectonic records, and was gradually transformed into the continental margin of the Paleo-Asian Ocean or Paleo-Tethys tectonic domain. Due to the Neo-Tethys tectonic evolution, it was evolved into the eastern boundary of the uplift and expansion of the Tibetan Plateau, controlling the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic reverse evolution of the western and eastern China. With "cross-tectonics" as the coordinate system, the four quadrants of China mainland have distinct characteristics of geological and geophysical structure, resources, geomorphology, ecology, environment, culture and economy.
Key words: "cross-tectonics" of the China continent    Central Orogenic System    North-South tectonic belt    Qinling orogenic belt    Qilian orogenic belt    Kunlun orogenic belt    

上世纪60年代建立的板块构造理论,近乎合理地解释了大洋岩石圈板块的形成演化以及板块边界的地质过程,推动了地球科学的革命性进步,但是面对复杂的大陆构造问题却显得“力不从心”。国际地球科学界相继提出研究大陆的形成演化及其动力学的科学命题。经过近30余年的探索研究和资料积累,大陆构造研究已经成为21世纪地球科学战略重点之一[1]。大陆构造研究不仅要描述和量化大陆的物质组成、结构构造、生长和变形方式与过程,而且需要阐明大陆变形和运动的机理。其关键问题包括:①小陆块拼合机制与过程,②大陆的生长-增生过程,③大陆岩石圈结构与组成的非均一性和演化,④大陆内部的变形过程及其动力学。东亚大陆是探讨上述关键科学问题的良好的载体,而控制东亚大陆形成演化的关键是中国大陆“十字构造”格架。文章基于中国大陆“十字构造”已有的大量地质、地球物理、地球化学和同位素年代学研究成果,概括总结了中国大陆“十字构造”形成演化特点,讨论了“十字构造”对地质地理、资源能源、生态环境等分隔作用。

1 中国大陆“十字构造”

中国大陆“十字构造”由东西向的中央造山系(秦岭—祁连—昆仑造山带)和南北向的贺兰—川滇南北构造带构成(图 1),长期控制着中国大陆、乃至东亚大陆的古生代—印支期的形成,以及中新生代陆内构造演化。东亚大陆的核心部分——中国大陆是由塔里木、华北、柴达木、扬子、华夏、羌塘、拉萨等众多小陆块及其间的大量过渡性微陆块,经过长期造山过程拼合而成复杂大陆。这些小-微陆块经过显生宙长期的拼合作用形成了三条最主要的造山带:中亚造山带[2-6]、中央造山带[7-11]和特提斯造山带[12-18]。其中,中央造山带呈东西向横贯中国、乃至东亚大陆的中部,其重要性不仅在于沿该带的拼合形成了中国大陆主体部分,而且,它是全球最复杂的复合型造山带,是探讨小陆块拼合机制、大陆的生长和增生、发展板块构造的最佳选择。中新生代以来,中国大陆位于全球特提斯、古亚洲和太平洋三大构造域的汇交部位[19],不仅在东亚大陆东缘形成了宽广的活动大陆边缘构造与岩浆活动,也导致中央造山带遭受复杂的陆内构造的叠加改造,而且华北和华南克拉通内部也出现了广泛的陆内造山和强烈的变形,为全球陆内变形及其动力学研究提供了不可替代的天然实验室。更为重要的是,由于印度板块与欧亚大陆的碰撞、青藏高原隆升,导致贺兰—川滇南北构造带贯通形成、以及中国大陆东西部构造反转和差异演化。概括而言,中国现今大陆构造是在前寒武纪构造基础上,由于古生代—印支期构造演化,使得南、北古大陆聚合,形成东西向的中央造山系[11],此后叠加新生代为主的贺兰—川滇南北构造带,共同形成“十字构造”[20]。“十字构造”不仅控制着中国大陆新生代以来构造演化,而且分隔了四象限不同的地质、地理、气候、环境、经济、人文等。

图 1 中国大陆“十字构造”示意图 Fig. 1 The map showing the "cross-tectonics" in China continent
2 东西构造带:中央造山系

横亘中国大陆中部的中央造山系自东由大别—桐柏造山带,向西经秦岭造山带,连接祁连山造山带和昆仑造山带(图 2),是中国南北大陆完成主体拼合的主要造山系[7-8, 11, 21-28]。各造山带均是在先期主造山作用构造基础上,于晚中生代—新生代发生强烈的陆内造山[11, 28-29]。不仅是中国南北岩石圈深部结构与地球物理状态的重要界线[30-32],也是中国南北大陆不同的地质地理、生态环境、气候水文,乃至人文经济的天然分界。

图 2 中国中央造山系及其邻区构造单元区划图 Fig. 2 Tectonic division of the Central China Orogenic System and adjacent areas

现有研究表明,中央造山系以多块体、多期次复合造山过程为特征,总体而言是由亲劳亚的华北、塔里木陆块与亲冈瓦纳的华南、昌都(北羌塘)、羌塘,以及过渡性质的柴达木等陆块群长期拼合而成的复合型造山带[7-9, 23-24, 33]。由于小陆块岩石组成、结构构造、配置关系的差异,导致不同造山带构造格局、聚合方式复杂多样、聚合过程以长期多期次叠加改造为特征、时空演化差异明显。不仅表现为秦岭—大别、祁连和昆仑等造山带具有不同的构造格局、造山方式、类型、时代等,而且同一造山带也具有多期次复合造山的性质。

2.1 中央造山系构造格局

中央造山系东段的秦岭—大别造山带南、北两侧分别以勉略—巴山—襄广断裂(MBXF)、灵宝—鲁山—舞阳断裂(LLWF)为界,向外逆冲推覆于华南北缘和华北南缘之上[11]。其内部分别以洛南—栾川断裂(LLF)、商丹缝合带(SDSZ)和勉略缝合带(MLSZ)为界划分为:华北地块南部(S-NCB)、北秦岭地块(NQB)、南秦岭地块(SQB)、华南地块北部(N-SCB)(图 3)[7]。秦岭—大别造山带主要形成于华北、华南及其间的南秦岭微陆块的相互作用,经历了商丹带古生代俯冲碰撞、印支期勉略带俯冲碰撞过程[7-9, 11, 28, 34]。地质、地球物理和年代学资料表明,秦岭在印支期之后转入陆内造山过程,包括早侏罗世沿多条主要边界断裂的碰撞后走滑断裂与沉积充填、晚侏罗世至早白垩世从华北板块和扬子板块相向向秦岭造山带之下陆内俯冲、晚白垩世至古近纪造山带的塌陷和坳陷,形成了许多大型的沿主要断层的断陷盆地[9]。但是,总体表现为两侧地块相向向造山带之下陆内俯冲,造山带则呈扇型抬升造山[9, 11, 27, 32]

(据文献[7]修改) (modified after reference [7]) 图 3 秦岭造山带及邻区地质简图 Fig. 3 Tectonic outline of the Qinling Orogen and adjacent areas

中央造山系西段则由北部的祁连造山带和南部的东昆仑造山带组成,具有更为复杂的构造格局和演化过程。祁连造山带北以龙首山断裂为界与阿拉善地块为邻,南西以柴达木北缘断裂为界与柴达木地块相邻,东南以宗务隆—青海南山断裂、哇洪山—温泉断裂与秦岭造山带相接。自北而南依次以北祁连缝合带、拉脊山—青海湖—党河南山缝合带、柴北缘超高压(UHP)-缝合带,把祁连造山带及其邻区分为四个构造单元:阿拉善南部构造带、中祁连构造带、南祁连构造带、柴达木地块北部带(图 4)。祁连造山带总体形成于阿拉善与柴达木之间的早古生代俯冲-增生-碰撞造山作用[35-41]

图 4 祁连造山带及邻区地质简图 Fig. 4 Geological map of the Qilian Orogen and adjacent areas

中央造山系西段南部的昆仑造山带则是塔里木、柴达木、羌塘、以及松潘—甘孜等长期围限、相互作用而成的造山带[10]。南以昆仑南缘缝合带与喀喇昆仑及松潘—甘孜造山带相接,北邻柴达木地块和塔里木地块,是中央造山系的重要组成部分,并被北东东向展布的阿尔金断裂带切割成东昆仑造山带和西昆仑造山带两部分。东昆仑造山带自北向南发育三条蛇绿混杂岩带:祁漫塔格—香日德混杂岩带、阿其克库勒湖—昆中混杂岩带、木孜塔格—布青山—阿尼玛卿混杂岩带。以此为界将东昆仑造山带及邻区自北向南分为了四个构造单元[10, 42-46]:北祁漫塔格构造带、昆中构造带、昆南构造带及松潘—甘孜构造带(图 5)。西昆仑造山带以奥依塔格—库地—苏巴什缝合带和麻扎—康西瓦缝合带为界,划分为塔里木南缘构造带(西昆仑北带)、西昆仑构造带(西昆仑中带)和喀拉昆仑构造带(西昆仑南带)[10, 43, 47-52]。前者相当于东昆仑的祁漫塔格—香日德混杂岩带,后者则对应于东昆仑的阿其克库勒湖—昆中混杂岩带、木孜塔格—布青山—阿尼玛卿混杂岩带及其间的昆南增生杂岩带。

(据文献[10]修改) (Modified after reference [10]) 图 5 东昆仑造山带及邻区地质简图 Fig. 5 Tectonic outline of the East Kunlun Orogen and adjacent areas

最新的研究表明,中央造山系北部的北秦岭—祁连造山带主要形成于古生代造山作用[7-9, 35-41],南部的南秦岭为印支期造山[7-9, 11],而昆仑造山带则经历了早古生代—印支期的俯冲-增生造山过程[10]

2.2 中央造山系古生代造山作用

北秦岭和祁连造山带的岩石构造单元、蛇绿岩及俯冲型岩浆活动、构造变形和变质作用,显示两者具有相似的构造格局和演化过程。北秦岭商丹蛇绿混杂岩带相当于柴北缘蛇绿混杂岩—南祁连增生杂岩带,代表了原特提斯主大洋缝合带,北秦岭和中祁连构造带为早古生代原特提斯洋向北俯冲的岛弧,而北秦岭二郎坪蛇绿混杂岩带和北祁连蛇绿混杂岩带均代表了弧后盆地缝合带。

2.2.1 主缝合带:原特提斯大洋

在中央造山系东段秦岭地区,代表原特提斯主大洋的商丹蛇绿混杂岩带由一系列断续出露的534~470 Ma蛇绿岩型超基性岩、辉长岩、N-MORB、E-MORB及岛弧型玄武岩等组成,包括代表初始扩展洋中脊或过渡洋脊的武山、岩湾和唐臧的E-MORB蛇绿岩,来自成熟洋中脊的关子镇、小王涧和资峪的N-MORB蛇绿岩,以及岛弧或活动大陆边缘的黑河、下黑湾玄武岩。代表了位于华北和华南地块之间的商丹(或秦岭)洋的大洋岩石圈地壳的残余,标定了早古生代商丹洋的存在[7-9]。岩湾E-MORB型蛇绿岩中辉长岩锆石U-Pb年龄为517.8±2.8 Ma[8],玄武岩的锆石U-Pb年龄为483±13 Ma[53];关子镇N-MORB蛇绿岩获得辉长岩锆石LA-ICPMS锆石U-Pb年龄471±1.4 Ma[54]、499.7±1.8 Ma[55]和TIMS U-Pb年龄507.5±3 Ma[56],以及SHRIMP锆石U-Pb年龄534±9 Ma和517±8 Ma[57];罗汉寺火山岩获得TIMS锆石U-Pb年龄523±26 Ma[58]。这些年代学资料限定秦岭商丹洋至少在534~470 Ma期间已经演化为成熟的大洋[7-9]

商丹洋于514~420 Ma向北俯冲,形成了北秦岭南缘大量的岛弧型辉长-闪长岩体,包括鸳鸯镇辉长岩(457±3 Ma[59]),百花辉长-闪长岩(449.7±3.1 Ma[60])。厚畛子辉长岩(475±4 Ma[61]),拉鸡庙辉长-闪长岩(422±7 Ma[62])和富水辉长岩(514±1.3 Ma[58],501±1.2 Ma[63],490±10 Ma[64])。综合上述侵入体的地球化学和同位素年代学共同限定秦岭商丹洋俯冲至少存在于514~420 Ma期间。

秦岭商丹缝合带向西延伸可与柴北缘蛇绿岩-超高压变质带和南祁连构造带对比。柴北缘早古生代结合带主要有一系列早古生代蛇绿岩、岛弧火山岩和高压-超高压变质岩带组成,而南祁连则相当于原特提斯洋向北俯冲的增生杂岩带,两者共同标定了早古生代原特提斯缝合带。

柴北缘蛇绿混杂岩主要由变质橄榄岩(蛇纹岩)、辉长岩、辉长辉绿岩、玄武岩(枕状熔岩)和少量硅质岩组成,地球化学研究表明蛇绿岩形成于弧后扩张脊环境。大柴旦绿梁山辉长岩锆石U-Pb年龄为496.3±6.2 Ma[65],绿梁山地区变玄武岩锆石U-Pb年龄为464.2 Ma和542±13 Ma[66-67]。与柴北缘高压碰撞带的形成密切相关的俯冲型岩浆活动以滩间山群为代表,主要以基性-中性火山岩为主,部分为酸性火山岩,甚至埃达克质岩,具有岛弧火山岩的特点[66, 68]。锡铁山地区滩间山群的中酸性火山岩锆石U-Pb年龄为486±13 Ma[69];赛什腾山吉绿素变安山岩LA-ICPMS锆石U-Pb年龄为514.2±8.5 Ma[68];柴北缘构造带广泛发育岛弧型花岗岩,锆石U-Pb年龄在496~445 Ma之间[67, 69]

2.2.2 弧后盆地:原特提斯洋向北俯冲

商丹洋向北秦岭地体之下发生洋-陆俯冲,形成了北秦岭大规模514~420 Ma的辉长-闪长质侵入体[7-9, 55-62, 70-71]和455~414 Ma的Ⅰ型花岗岩[7-9, 72-73],并导致二郎坪弧后盆地扩开及北秦岭岛弧的形成;二郎坪蛇绿混杂岩包括基性-超基性单元、及相关的火山-沉积岩,玄武岩以E-MORB为主[8],安山岩为俯冲型[8, 53]。结合俯冲相关的岩浆活动、高压-超高压变质作用,推断二郎坪弧后盆地在510 Ma之前打开、508~450 Ma向南俯冲、450 Ma最终闭合[7-9]

北祁连构造带以北祁连北缘断裂与走廊过渡带相邻,南界为托莱南山北坡断裂,西延被阿尔金断裂所切,东延可达同心—固原断裂。北祁连以发育早古生代蛇绿岩、岛弧火山岩及其相关的岩浆构造事件为特征,主要包括熬油沟(501.4±4.3 Ma[74]和504±6 Ma[75])、玉石沟(548±9 Ma~529±9 Ma[36])、边马沟、老虎山(448.5±4.7 Ma[36])、大岔大坂、九个泉(490±5 Ma[76])、东漕河(497±7 Ma[77])和扁都口(479±2 Ma[36])等晚寒武—早奥陶世蛇绿岩[36, 38, 78-83]。蛇绿岩主要由变质橄榄岩、辉长岩和玄武岩组成,大多具MORB的地球化学特征,主要为弧后盆地洋壳的碎片[84],侵位在岛弧及俯冲增生杂岩之上。蛇绿岩、海沟、岛弧、增生楔、蓝片岩、混杂堆积以及弧后盆地等岩石构造单元共同叠置组成了北祁连增生造山带[38]。尽管北祁连洋壳俯冲极性存在向南[38]、向北[36]和双向俯冲[85]。考虑到中祁连构造带基底与阿拉善地块类似的古元古代岩浆事件,指示其与阿拉善地块的亲缘性,认为北祁连蛇绿混杂岩带代表了弧后盆地缝合带,形成于柴北缘—南祁连洋向北俯冲、北祁连弧后盆地打开、中祁连地块从阿拉善—华北的裂离。北祁连洋初始俯冲于~520 Ma,继之以大规模~517~490 Ma俯冲型岩浆活动,弧后盆地关闭于~445 Ma,并于435~420 Ma发生陆壳深俯冲[36]

在北祁连构造带发现多处具N-MORB和OIB地球化学特征的榴辉岩和蓝片岩。SHRIMP锆石U-Pb年龄489~463 Ma和710~544 Ma分别代表了峰期变质年龄和原岩形成年龄[36, 86-89]。榴辉岩蓝片岩多硅白云母39Ar/40Ar 448±11 Ma[90], 454~446 Ma[91-93],约束了弧后盆地洋壳俯冲时代。同碰撞型岩浆活动锆石U-Pb SHRIMP年龄424±3 Ma,代表碰撞作用年龄[94]。北祁连构造带下泥盆统牦牛山群造山磨拉石角度不整合覆盖在早古生代地层之上,标定了北祁连造山事件。

2.2.3 造山作用:原特提斯闭合

北秦岭不同地区出露的不同类型的高压-超高压变质岩的变质时代为514~485 Ma[64, 95-97],有学者据此认为,北秦岭高压-超高压变质岩带的形成是商丹洋闭合的标志,是商丹洋向北俯冲拖曳南秦岭新元古代陆壳物质在~500 Ma发生陆壳俯冲-深俯冲作用的产物[95-96, 98-99]。但是该解释受到以下地质事实的挑战:①秦岭商丹缝合带位于超高压变质岩带的南侧,②存在比超高压变质岩峰期年龄更年轻的蛇绿岩,③北秦岭大量的514~420 Ma的俯冲型辉长-闪长岩岩浆活动,④如果北秦岭发生了深俯冲,其上覆板块在哪里?因此,北秦岭的514~485 Ma超高压变质地体,可能仅是商丹洋内一个微陆块的俯冲产物,并不能限定秦岭商丹洋的闭合时代。北秦岭地体的变质-变形历史[100]、南秦岭中上泥盆统双向物源的碎屑锆石年龄和岩石地球化学特征[101-103]、以及南秦岭构造-沉积记录、南北秦岭的差异隆升历史,揭示南秦岭在商丹洋早泥盆世闭合之后持续向北秦岭之下进行陆-陆俯冲[104]

柴达木北缘超高压带研究表明祁连造山带经历了早古生代从大洋、到大陆深俯冲及其折返构造过程。柴北缘超高压变质带以鱼卡河—沙柳河地区发育的榴辉岩及柯石英等为特征[105-119]。榴辉岩的原岩包括洋脊玄武岩、岛弧拉斑玄武岩和洋岛玄武岩等,榴辉岩锆石U-Pb年龄为464±5 Ma,代表洋壳俯冲超高压变质时代[107, 116-118]。而含柯石英片麻岩[105-106, 115]和石榴橄榄岩超高压变质锆石U-Pb年龄为430~400 Ma,代表大陆地壳深俯冲发生的时间[109-110]。很可能是从大洋俯冲到大陆碰撞的不同阶段的产物[110]

综合蛇绿岩及岛弧岩浆活动、变质作用、沉积作用和构造变形等证据,以及南阿尔金榴辉岩峰期变质509~475 Ma[97]、柴北缘榴辉岩变质年龄464~420 Ma[40, 116-120],推断南祁连—柴北缘洋、秦岭商丹洋闭合时限应该发生于早泥盆世[7-9, 101, 104]

2.3 中央造山系印支期造山作用

中央造山系印支期造山作用自东而西明显具有差异性,东部秦岭地区主要表现为扬子北缘裂谷—小洋盆打开与关闭过程,而西部昆仑地区则表现为北羌塘和柴达木地块之间早古生代昆仑大洋的长期俯冲增生过程。

秦岭勉略带裂谷火山岩、蛇绿岩及相关俯冲型火山岩研究表明,勉略洋在志留纪沿华南板块北缘打开,形成一系列裂谷型碱性玄武岩、英安岩及流纹岩[121-124],并逐步扩张形成勉略古洋盆[9, 11]。勉略洋于ca. 250 Ma向北俯冲于南秦岭之下,形成大量俯冲相关的安山岩、斜长岩、辉绿岩[125-127];而勉略带南侧晚三叠世—侏罗纪磨拉石的出现[128]、及蛇绿混杂岩中变基性岩类的变质年龄227~220 Ma[129]、高压麻粒岩的剥露时代206~200 Ma[130],共同指示勉略洋在晚三叠之前闭合。南秦岭大量发育ca.250~200 Ma的花岗岩类记录了勉略带俯冲-碰撞-后碰撞的造山过程,包括与俯冲相关的ca. 245~220 Ma的Ⅰ型花岗岩[131-134]、同碰撞型的ca. 220~210 Ma的准铝质-过铝质同碰撞花岗岩、埃达克质花岗闪长岩、英云闪长岩和暗色包体[72, 135-137],以及ca. 210~200 Ma的后碰撞环斑花岗岩[72]

昆仑造山带及邻区记录了原特提斯—古特提斯洋长期的俯冲-增生-闭合等造山过程[10, 138-145]。目前的研究显示,东昆仑造山带具有长期、复杂的构造演化历史,古大洋形成最晚于早古生代开始,演化至早三叠世,期间经历了长期的俯冲过程,形成了早古生代的沟-弧-盆体系[10, 42, 45],晚古生代弧后盆地关闭、昆仑主大洋的持续俯冲,形成了阿其克库勒湖—昆中和木孜塔格—布青山两条蛇绿混杂带之间宽广的昆南增生杂岩带[10]

阿其克库勒湖—昆中蛇绿混杂岩带包含了E-MORB及SSZ型两类蛇绿混杂岩,主要沿昆中断裂带两侧分布,前者主要出露于长石山、清水泉及可可科特等地区,时代为537~436 Ma[43, 119, 146-151],后者则在温泉、曲什昂、塔妥、乌妥、大格勒及阿其克库勒湖等地出露,辉长岩及玄武岩等的形成时代为512~243 Ma[150, 152-157]

木孜塔格—布青山—阿尼玛卿蛇绿混杂岩带以断续出露的木孜塔格蛇绿岩[158-161]、布青山蛇绿岩[22, 43, 151, 162]、玛积雪山洋岛火山岩、下大武和恰格查麻拉岛弧火山岩、德尔尼蛇绿岩[163-165]等为标志。包含N-MORB、OIB及SSZ型蛇绿混杂岩,其中N-MORB主要出露在德尔尼—布青山一带,辉长岩及玄武岩的时代多为516~308 Ma[143, 163-168];OIB主要出露在布青山的得力斯坦、哈尔郭勒及哥日卓托地区[169-170],辉长岩时代为555 Ma[166];SSZ型蛇绿岩以木孜塔格地区为代表;硅质岩中的放射虫化石指示其沉积时代为早石炭世至二叠纪[43, 159-160, 171]

祁漫塔格—香日德蛇绿混杂岩带代表了弧后盆地缝合带[42],自西而东依次在黑山、鸭子大阪、鸭子泉、十字沟、夏日哈木、长沟等地出露蛇绿混杂岩,蛇绿岩同位素年龄介于486~422 Ma[42, 148, 172-179]。夏日哈木和温泉地区的榴辉岩和退变榴辉岩峰期变质年龄分别为428~411 Ma[180-181]。结合区域变质作用[118, 182-183],区域构造变形、岩浆活动、沉积事件的证据,表明沿该带存在早古生代弧后盆地闭合事件[10, 42]

3 南北构造带:贺兰—川滇构造带

贺兰—川滇南北构造带,从中国大陆北方104°-108°E间到南方的90°-105°E间,呈北北东或近南北向展布,是全球性贝加尔—印度洋90°海岭南北构造的主要组成部分[184]。不仅是分隔中国东西部地理、地质的最主要构造界线,而且是中—新生代中国大陆东、西部构造差异演化与深部动力学过程的转换带。南北构造带继承了前中生代构造基础、形成于中生代、叠加改造于新生代,是一条具有长期演化历史的复合构造系统[184]。贺兰—川滇南北构造带可划分为贺兰山、六盘山、西秦岭、龙门山、川滇—印度支那五个区段,各个区段具有明显不同的演化历史和构造特征。

3.1 贺兰山:不同构造系统复杂转换带

贺兰山是分隔阿拉善地块和鄂尔多斯地块的构造边界(图 6),是继承古元古代Columbia聚合构造,并经历了古生代、中生代和新生代不同时期、不同性质构造的叠加改造而成。具有多期次构造相互叠加改造、盆山系统复杂转换的特点。现有的研究表明,贺兰山残存有古元古代Columbia超大陆聚合事件的地质记录[185],保留有西部陆块(阴山陆块或阿拉善陆块)与鄂尔多斯地块2.03 Ga的俯冲岩浆活动[186]、1.95 Ga碰撞成因的中压和高压泥质麻粒岩和超高温变质带[187-188]

(据文献[190]修改) (Modified after reference [190]) 图 6 贺兰山—六盘山及邻区构造纲要图 Fig. 6 Structure of Helanshan-Liupanshan and adjacent areas

贺兰山显生宙构造演化争议较大,不同学者认为,贺兰山在新元古代—早古生代是坳拉槽[189-191]、晚古生代则为祁连造山带前缘碰撞谷[192-193]、中生代前陆盆地[192, 194]。最近的古地磁学[195-198]和锆石年代学[199-203]研究认为,阿拉善地块和鄂尔多斯地块沿贺兰山拼接造山发生于晚古生代。但是,沿贺兰山至今没有发现显生宙蛇绿岩、造山性质的岩浆活动、变质作用和构造变形记录。最近的沉积学精细研究[204-206]表明,贺兰山是鄂尔多斯西缘的一部分,主要受控于古亚洲洋构造演化;贺兰构造带及周缘地区寒武纪—早奥陶世为古亚洲洋被动大陆边缘盆地;中—晚奥陶世转换为活动陆缘;石炭—二叠纪为古亚洲洋向南俯冲控制的弧后伸展盆地;三叠纪属于鄂尔多斯盆地河湖沉积体系一部分,受控于中亚造山带造山后伸展构造。贺兰构造带中—新生代构造变形的几何学、运动学和动力学研究[207-211],揭示出贺兰构造带显生宙构造变形主要发生于燕山运动以来,中—新生代以来经历的四期构造变形过程:①早侏罗世初受近北北东向挤压作用,在三叠系及以下地层中形成一系列走向近北西西向挤压构造;②晚侏罗世末北西向挤压作用,在侏罗系及其以下地层中发育一系列走向近北东向挤压构造;③早白垩世初近西北西向伸展作用,在构造带两侧发育了走向近北北东向伸展构造;④晚中新世近北东向挤压,在始新统及以下地层中形成走向近北西向挤压构造[209]

3.2 六盘山:青藏高原扩展变形前锋带

六盘山主体是逆冲隆升的鄂尔多斯西缘早白垩世断陷盆地沉积岩系,现今突出地表现为一系列向北东凸出的弧形逆冲推覆构造系,并逆掩改造了贺兰山南段南北向构造,主体形成于青藏高原隆升、挤压变形的东北前缘扩展变形带。

鄂尔多斯西缘以西地区发育泥盆系—石炭系地层,而东部地区仅有上三叠统(局部见中三叠统),该差异表明奥陶纪—中三叠世可能存在古南北向构造[212],鄂尔多斯西缘早中侏罗世处于北—南向引张应力状态[213-214],六盘山盆地形成了早—中侏罗世湖相泥页岩夹煤系;晚侏罗世则为近东—西向挤压应力[213-214],导致盆地抬升萎缩、剥蚀,形成鄂尔多斯西缘近南北向的挤压逆冲推覆构造。早白垩世早期受到区域东—西向引张应力作用而发生南北向断陷,充填六盘山主体——六盘山群典型的河湖相碎屑岩沉积建造,与下伏不同时代地层、上覆第三系西柳沟组均呈角度不整合或平行不整合接触[215-216],是在侏罗纪隆起基础上发育的早白垩世断陷盆地[213, 217]。下白垩统地层构成一个完整的内陆盆地充填三级层序,记录了盆地从初始扩张充填—主扩张—萎缩消亡的演化过程[216, 218]。早白垩世晚期,由于北西—南东向的挤压导致盆地发生构造反转,逐步开始隆升,遭受剥蚀;晚新生代先后经历北东—南西和近东—西向的挤压,发生强烈褶皱和快速逆冲隆升[208]

六盘山盆地内发育一系列向北东凸出的弧形断裂构造,自南西向北东依次为海原—六盘山断裂、香山—天景山断裂、烟筒山断裂、牛首山—罗山断裂,并清楚地显示在大地电磁测深剖面上[219-220],各断裂具有向南集中收束合一的特点,其成因可能与鄂尔多斯逆时针旋转运动有关[221]。鄂尔多斯逆时针旋转和海原左行走滑两者耦合作用对于六盘山形成演化具有重要的控制作用[222]。其中,牛首山—罗山(—云雾山)断裂是夹持于海原断裂和陇川—宝鸡断裂之间的逆冲-走滑型断裂,是控制六盘山构造活动的主要构造[223]。活动构造的变形样式、地壳挤压缩短量与现代构造变形模式等,都已有较多的研究和论述[223-225]。已有的研究表明,六盘山南北段具有不同的变形机制和运动学特点[226]。六盘山东麓断裂在第四纪以来具有明显的挤压逆冲运动,其北段伴有左旋走滑运动,中、南段以逆冲运动为主,不仅使晚第三纪地层褶皱隆起,而且一直影响到晚更新世地层,而且活动时代北新南老[225]。南段发育逆冲推覆构造,并由前缘冲断带(沙沟冲断带)和后缘冲断带(海原冲断带)组成,中生代具有走滑拉分性质,新生代则为陆内前陆盆地[227]。而且,8 Ma左右由于印度板块强烈的挤压作用,导致喜马拉雅、冈底斯隆升,高原东北缘发生强烈的构造变形和隆升[213, 228],六盘山强烈抬升[229],并在1.8 Ma遭受强烈剥蚀[230]

另外,由于青藏高原的隆升和向北东的扩展变形,导致六盘山地区构造应力不断积累,使得六盘山成为中国南北地震带的关键部位。已有的研究表明,该区曾发生过30次7级以上的地震,自4.6万年以来存在6次6.5~8级地震,至少有3次以上具1 m左右垂直错断,平面与剖面实测和地貌面年代的分析表明,晚更新世以来的六盘山东麓断裂垂直错断速率在0.3~0.7 mm/a, 北段有0.5 mm/a的左旋水平错断[225]

概括而言,六盘山构造带是在古生代祁连山前构造基础上,叠加了侏罗纪鄂尔多斯西缘南北构造过程;其后于早白垩世发生断陷,接受巨厚的六盘山群沉积充填;早白垩世末期六盘山盆地构造反转隆升;新构造运动时期,青藏高原强烈的推挤作用导致六盘山再次强烈挤压收缩变形,并形成现今褶皱冲断构造,并逐步形成指向北东的弧形断裂和逆冲推覆构造。

3.3 西秦岭:东西构造与南北构造交结区

贺兰—川滇南北构造带横跨东向西的中央造山系(十字构造)交接转换部位,处于东、西秦岭分界的宝鸡—碧口区段,该区集中发育渭河断裂(东西向)、阳平关—宁陕(北东东)走滑断裂、太白—文县走滑剪切带及一系列北东向展布盆地。同时,该带出露有西秦岭宕昌—礼县深源岩浆带[231]和东秦岭佛坪穹隆构造[11],尤其引人注目的是该区呈北东向展布的走滑断裂、拉分盆地及其深源岩浆作用。

沿文县—武都—徽成盆地—凤太—太白山—关中盆地,发育一系列北东30°~40°走向的走滑剪切带,控制着一系列白垩系为主的中、新生代陆相盆地或新近纪盆地,断裂起始于白垩纪,盆地具有走滑拉分性质[11]。根据汉中、武都等新近纪盆地中发现的哺乳动物化石确定的地层时代对比, 推断断裂系左旋走滑活动可能起始于9.0 Ma[232]。这一结果与礼县、宕昌、西和一线出露30余处的南北向分布的新近纪深源超基性-基性岩带的形成时代相吻合,K-Ar全岩测年结果表明,火山岩喷发时代主要在7.1~8.7 Ma,其次为13~15 Ma,少部分在18~19 Ma[231]。主要的火山喷发时代与西和盆地、礼县盆地走滑拉分作用基本同时,该两盆地是在古近纪盆地基础上发育的新近纪走滑拉分盆地。这些事实表明,“十字构造”交接转换部位是地表构造变形和深部壳幔相互作用最为复杂的区段。

3.4 龙门山—川滇构造段:新元古代活动大陆边缘与青藏高原东部边界 3.4.1 扬子地块西缘新元古代活动大陆边缘

龙门山—川滇构造区段位于扬子地块西缘,新元古代属于活动大陆边缘构造环境(图 7)。碧口群火山岩和碎屑岩形成于与俯冲作用有关的构造环境,锆石U-Pb同位素限定玄武岩年龄为846±19 Ma和840±10 Ma, 流纹岩年龄为790±15 Ma和776±13 Ma[233]。汉南—米仓山地区的西乡群和铁船山群火山岩系岩石地球化学显示其形成于岛弧环境[234-235],西乡群玄武岩锆石U-Pb年龄为895~730 Ma[235-238], 流纹岩锆石U-Pb年龄为832±4.9 Ma[238],铁船山群形成年龄为863±10 Ma[239]。碧口平头山闪长岩、关口垭闪长岩和留鸡坪辉长岩地球化学特征指示板块俯冲成因,锆石U-Pb年龄为884~877 Ma[240]。铜厂石英闪长岩和花岗闪长岩显示弧岩浆地球化学特征,前者锆石U-Pb年龄879~840 Ma, 而后者形成年龄为824±5 Ma[241]

(据文献[242]修改) (Modified after reference[242]) 图 7 扬子陆块西缘元古代地质略图 Fig. 7 Geological map of the western Yangtze block

汉南—米仓山地区望江山、席家坝、酉水等基性侵入体LA-ICPMS锆石U-Pb年龄介于798~751 Ma[243], 沙河坎花岗闪长岩锆石U-Pb年龄为768~763 Ma[244-245]。岩石地球化学显示望江山、毕机沟、罗家坝辉长岩体形成于俯冲环境,其锆石U-Pb年龄为820~746 Ma[246-247]。这些侵入体,指示扬子地块西北缘存在820~746 Ma的活动大陆边缘。同时,五堵门、二里坝埃达克质花岗岩地球化学和锆石U-Pb年龄789~730 Ma[239, 248-249]也支持新元古代俯冲作用的存在。

新元古代俯冲作用相关的花岗岩体在扬子地块西缘龙门山也广泛发育,自北而南依次有轿子顶花S-型花岗岩,锆石U-Pb年龄为793~792 Ma[250];活动陆缘弧环境的彭灌杂岩[251]和雪龙堡埃达克质花岗岩闪长为748±7 Ma[248];宝兴辉长岩、辉长闪长岩和花岗岩形成年龄在848~769 Ma期间[252, 253]

从龙门山向南达攀西地区,康定杂岩、贡菜杂岩和米易杂岩均具有与俯冲作用相关的成因特点[254-255]。康定花岗岩锆石U-Pb年龄为797~795 Ma, 贡菜和米易杂岩的锆石U-Pb年龄分别为824±14 Ma和764± Ma[254]。二长花岗岩锆石U-Pb年龄为826~767 Ma[255]。在冕宁—西昌地区,磨盘山埃达克岩形成于消减洋壳部分熔融,年龄为782±6 Ma[256]。攀枝花辉长岩地球化学特征显示俯冲成因特点,锆石U-Pb年龄为746~738 Ma[257];在延边地区发育具有OIB和MORB地球化学性质的辉绿岩,其锆石U-Pb分别为792±13 Ma和761±14 Ma[258]。同时,也有一系列与新元古代俯冲作用相关的侵入杂岩,如同德侵入杂岩锆石U-Pb年龄为825±7 Ma[259],高家村和冷水清基性侵入体年龄分别为812±3 Ma和806±4 Ma[260]

综合碧口、汉南—米仓山、龙门山、攀西地区大量发育的俯冲相关的弧岩浆作用的地球化学和年代学,表明在扬子西缘确实存在新元古代俯冲相关作用,时代主要为850~720 Ma[9]

3.4.2 龙门山—川滇中新生代构造

龙门山构造带古生代主要是在前寒武纪构造基础上,逐步转换为原特提斯和古特提斯洋的被动陆缘环境。由于古特提斯洋印支期关闭,导致龙门山构造带转入陆内构造演化,并遭受青藏高原向东扩展的挤压逆冲-走滑改造,构造变形具有明显的分带性。自东而西主要包括:前龙门向东的逆冲推覆、滑覆和走滑构造,后龙门的伸展、斜冲走滑构造,以及岷江南北向构造等;龙门山逆冲断裂起始于三叠纪,在新生代具有强烈的活动性[261-263]。多数研究者认为,龙门山是四川盆地与松潘地块间的一个指向东南的印支期逆冲推覆构造[261]。新生代以来,松潘—甘孜地体物质向东南强烈逆冲[264-265]。地球物理测深资料[266-267]也揭示出龙门山上部向东南侧盆地逆冲推覆和滑覆,而深部则是松潘岩石圈向扬子板块的深俯冲,并被解释为“鳄鱼式构造”。但值得注意的是,后者很有可能是新元古代扬子西缘俯冲带的残迹。

龙门山断裂带向南延伸与小江—安宁河断裂相对应。小江—安宁河断裂是一条以挤压逆冲、伴有左行走滑和局部拉张性质的大型断裂和构造边界带,也是青藏高原东缘重要的航磁、重力梯度带和强地震活动带[32, 267]。更新世以来,北段最大水平走滑速率达11.8 mm/a,最大倾滑速率为1.33~1.6 mm/a[268]。继续向南连接哀牢山—红河断裂带[265]。川滇—印度支那构造区段突出表现为沿红河断裂指向南东的走滑逃逸[269],及其间块体的挤压、旋转运动,以及一系列南北向构造。向南连接印度洋90°海岭的南北向构造。

4 “十字构造”的意义 4.1 中央造山系是古生代特提斯主要缝合带和中国大陆南北分界

中央造山系是分别归属于冈瓦纳和劳亚大陆的南方和北方陆块群经过古生代—中生代长期拼合形成中国大陆、乃至东亚大陆主体的构造结合带,是在先期板块俯冲碰撞造山基础上,于晚中生代—新生代发生强烈的陆内造山[11, 28-29]。它不仅是分隔具有不同前寒武纪演化历史、不同岩石构造组合与年龄、不同岩石圈结构构造的中国北方、南方陆块群的地质、地球化学界限,而且是中国南北岩石圈深部结构与地球物理状态的重要界线[32, 270-271],还是中国北方和南方不同的资源能源形成时代和构造环境的分界,也是中国南、北大陆不同的自然地理、生态环境、经济人文等的天然分界。同时,中央造山系隆升过程明显控制着中国南北方气候环境变化、大气与水循环、生物多样性演变等。

4.2 南北构造带是中国大陆东、西部地质地球物理界限

贺兰—川滇南北构造带,不仅是中新生代中国大陆东、西部构造差异演化与深部动力学过程的中轴交接转换带[184],也是分隔中国东西部地理、地质的最主要构造界线,是古亚洲、滨太平洋和特提斯三大构造域交汇的地带[20],是全球性南北构造的主要组成部分[184]。是中国大陆地质从深部到浅层东西部的分界带、重要地质构造带、深源岩浆带(西秦岭)、地球物理综合异常带[272-275]和地震活动带[276]。同时,又是亚洲巨型成矿带和山体滑坡、泥石流等地质灾害频繁发生的地质灾害带[20]

4.2.1 南北构造带是中国大陆东、西部地表系统反转的枢纽

现今中国大陆明显表现为西高东低,尤其是青藏高原平均海拔达4000 m以上,向东越过贺兰—川滇南北构造带(龙门山)后,陡变为四川盆地平均500 m的海拔。几乎所有的现代河流都自西向东流动,然而,中生代初期却具有相反的地形特点,即东高西低。中下扬子地区中、晚三叠世—早中侏罗世岩相古地理研究表明, 当时水流方向自东向西, 表明中国东部可能一度为高山—高原,这一结论与超高压岩石折返隆升过程、造山带根部暴露、其上岩石被剥蚀、搬运方向和体积估算所得认识一致[277]。碎屑白云母40Ar/39Ar和碎屑锆石U-Pb年代学研究显示,松潘地区的上三叠统物源主要来自东部桐柏—大别地区[278-279],也支持当时的地表系统具有东高西低的特点。中国东部中新生代岩浆作用和埃达克岩的深入研究表明,存在燕山晚期东部高原[280-286]。新生代由于青藏高原的隆升,中生代东高西低的地表构造系统沿贺兰—川滇南北构造带反转为西高东低。东部受控于西太平洋陆缘构造系统,表现为北东—北北东向构造与盆山体系;西部则主要受控于喜马拉雅碰撞造山系和青藏高原,形成东西—北西向为主的盆山及内陆体系。地表系统东西差异与反转演化,反映了全球动力学体系调整及现代岩石圈深部结构的地表响应。中新生代中国大陆地表系统的东、西部反转演变对亚洲乃至全球地形、地貌、气候、水系具有重大影响。

4.2.2 南北构造带是东、西部不同岩石圈加厚-减薄反转的中轴

地球物理探测揭示,中国大陆现今深部结构与状态最突出的特征之一就是东、西部存在巨大差异,即以贺兰—川滇南北构造带为界,东部呈现为近南北向异常结构,具多个梯级带和地壳-岩石圈多层次脱耦状态,存在岩石圈拆离减薄作用,具有壳幔交换复杂以及双向增生的特点。贺兰—川滇南北构造带以西的青藏高原及其北缘新疆—北山地区,则以近东西向异常结构状态为主要特点。这些差异主要是中新生代以来东、西部分别受控于欧亚、太平洋构造动力学系统、印度—澳大利亚构造动力学系统,发生从深部地幔到浅部地壳的构造变动和调整,导致中国大陆东、西部发生巨大的构造反转、差异演化。

中国东部由先期沿中央造山系的南北向挤压作用形成的地壳-岩石圈结构,逐步转换为与西太平洋活动陆缘演化相关的结构和陆内构造。已有的研究表明,中国东部岩石圈厚度可能达到150~200 km[287-289],大别山HP-UHP岩石抬升剥露(220~180 Ma)[290-291]、埃达克岩的广泛发育(150~120 Ma)[280]、造山带核部129~136 Ma活跃的火山活动和巨厚的火山喷发物质堆积(厚3~5 km[277],显示强烈的壳幔交换与底侵拆沉作用,共同指示中国东部从中生代初期岩石圈开始加厚、抬升,并于中—晚侏罗世(180~150 Ma)地形达到最高[277],其后开始不均一减薄[292-296]。岩石圈减薄和壳幔置换时期开始于大约150~140 Ma,结束于大约110~100 Ma,峰值为120 Ma[284, 297-298]。白垩纪(110 Ma)以来岩石圈平均减薄了80 km[296],直到现今70~80 km岩石圈和30~40 km地壳[32, 299-300]

在南北构造带以西地区,前中生代主体属于古特提斯构造系统,例如松潘—甘孜地区巨厚的中生界沉积反映西部地区中生代应是地貌低地和岩石圈较薄的地区。只是到了新生代,由于新特提斯洋关闭、印度板块和欧亚板块强烈的碰撞造山作用,导致青藏高原的地壳、岩石圈结构急剧加厚,最终形成现今厚度达60~80 km的地壳和130~160 km的岩石圈[301]

4.2.3 南北构造带是中国地震、地质灾害集中带

贺兰—川滇南北构造带不仅是中国大陆地质东部和西部的分界带、重要构造变形带、深源岩浆带(西秦岭)、地球物理综合异常带[275],而且是现代地震强烈活动带[223-224],并被称为南北地震带,该带集中了中国有历史记录的一半多的8级以上大地震,除了汶川2008年5月12日7.8级地震和雅安2013年4月20日7.0级地震外,贺兰山—六盘山区段及其两侧在历史上曾发生多次巨大地震,如1556年华县8级地震、1654年天水8级地震、1739年银川8级地震、1879年武都8级地震、1920年海原8. 5级地震、1927年古浪8级地震等;这一地区也是现今强震活跃的地区, 80年代后发生了1986年门源6.5级地震、1990年共和7级地震、1990年天祝6.1级地震、1995年永登5.8级地震、2000年景泰5.9级地震等[302]。同时,南北构造带也是新构造运动强烈而频繁、山体滑坡和泥石流等地质灾害频繁发生的构造活动带[20]

5 结论

综上所述,中国大陆“十字构造”在中国地质演化上起着重要作用,是中国地质构造的纽带,是探讨中国大地构造演化的关键地区,也是中国的重要成矿带和中国地质灾害多发地区。东西向的中央造山系的形成分别归属于劳亚和冈瓦纳大陆的北方、南方陆块群古生代—印支期俯冲碰撞造山作用,并遭受中新生代陆内构造改造,是中国南方与北方地质、地理、资源和生态环境的天然分界线。贺兰—川滇南北构造带是在前寒武纪不同构造演化基础上,分别叠加了古生代古亚洲洋和古特提斯洋大陆边缘演化,尤其是印度与欧亚板块碰撞、青藏高原形成及其东部边界的复合作用,最终形成现今南北构造带结构构造样式。是中新生代中国大陆从地表系统到深部地质发生东、西部构造反转、差异演变的中轴和转换带,是分隔中国东部和西部地质、地理、资源能源、生态环境的天然界线。以“十字构造”为坐标系,中国大陆“四象限”的地质、地理、资源和生态环境具有明显不同特征,显示“十字构造”对中国大陆形成演化、地质地理、资源能源、生态环境、气候水文、人文经济等的控制作用。

致谢: 特别感谢胡健民研究员盛情邀约撰写本文,谨以此文纪念李四光先生130周年诞辰!

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